15 Nov Connecting parts of the sentence
Lexical discourse cues
Lexical discourse cues are essential elements of the language which connect different parts of the discourse. Producing complex and coherent structures indicates proficiency and fluency in the language, this is why lexical discourse cues are so necessary.
a) Lexical discourse cues are discourse markers, coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Each will be used in different ways and for different purposes. The following is a list with the most common ones:
But, whereas, on the other hand, unlike, although, however, in spite of, despite (the fact that), nevertheless, instead, while, though.
CAUSE AND EFFECT
Because (of), due to, for that reason, since, as a result, consequently, therefore, thus, so that, in order to.
In fact, as a matter of fact, that means, indeed, in other words, actually.
For example, for instance, to illustrate.
In addition, additionally, and, moreover, furthermore, not only… but also, besides, as well as.
First(ly), second(ly), then, when, while, meanwhile, as soon as, next, eventually, before long.
To conclude, to sum up, in summary, in short, in conclusion, to summarize, as we have seen.
If, as long as, provided, even if, only if, otherwise.
b) The differences between subordinating conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions and discourse markers are the following:
- Coordinating conjunctions join two independent sentences
Lisa is 4 years-old and John is four.
This is a typical acronym used to remember them:
F = for
A = and
N = nor
B = but
O = or
Y = yet
S = so
- Subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate clause to a main clause.
He asked if the train was delayed.
Here´s a list:
|after||how||till ( or ’til)|
|as if||in order to||when|
|as long as||lest||whenever|
|as much as||now that||where|
|as soon as||provided (that)||wherever|
Some subordinated conjunctions are usually followed by noun phrases:
After the Second World War, Hungary’s international role changed.
Here’s a list of them:
In contrast to – Because of – In addition to – different from – due to – unlike – as a result of – Similar to – Despite – Before / after – Like – in spite of – until – since- during
- Linking words/phrases, sentence connectors or discourse markers join two independent clauses but with a semicolon (;) or period (.). They can occur in the initial, middle and final position.
The company’s profits weren’t very high last month. Therefore, I decided to call a meeting.
Here’s a list:
Therefore – however- in addition- in fact- thus- in contrast- furthermore- as a matter of fact- consequently- on the other hand- moreover- indeed- as a result- instead- besides- hence- rather- additionally- for this reason- however First- similarly- otherwise- nevertheless- second- likewise- Afterward- still- After that- Later- Then / Next- on the contrary- On the whole- For example- in other words- In conclusion- In general- For instance- that means (that)- To conclude- Generally- To illustrate- In summary- Generally speaking- To summarize- As we have seen- In short
c) It’s important to know how to use these lexical cues in context. Some of them are more formal than others and are, therefore, only used in writing. Here are some examples of formal and informal lexical discourse cues:
+ INFORMAL + FORMAL
AND, BESIDES, AS WELL AS
BUT, WHEREAS, ALTHOUGH
AS WE HAVE SEEN, IN SHORT
|CONSEQUENTLY, THEREFORE, THUS
IN ADDITION, ADDITIONALLY, MOREOVER
NEVERTHELESS, ON THE OTHER HAND
TO CONCLUDE, IN CONCLUSION
Doing this practice exercise will help you to learn them.